Calabrese et al, Method: Cortical lesion burden appears to correlate better with disability and disease progression than WM pathology; patients with benign disease had lower cortical lesion burden than those with more advanced disease19 3.
Albers Equal-Area Conic, standard parallels JPEG quality setting 10 Color mode: Starting with voluminous raw DCW data, creating presentable hydrography for the map was by far the most time-consuming production task.
Initial manipulations included map reprojection using MAPublisher 6. The manipulated hydrography and other map lines contained the same number of vector data points as the original DCW data. The rendered lines were then touched up by hand in Photoshop primarily to improve registration.
Finally, in Photoshop, the lines were composited with the underlying terrain and the file flattened to produce the final map. Because the map linework underwent significant transformations when The relative importance of physical and from vectors to rendered raster final, the final map has a much softer appearance than the original DCW data.
The technique for filling the voids was the same as that used for creating CleanTOPO2, described here. Other data manipulation includes resolution bumping applied to all high mountains in the western U.
Without smoothing applied to the elevation data the rendered terrain would have a harsh, noisy appearance, especially the rugged mountains of the northern Rockies and northern Cascade Range.
On the final map, flat lands contain more detail than do the mountains. The volcanic summits of the Cascade Range received manual touchups in Photoshop.
Adding a couple of pixels to the width of upper-elevation slopes gave the peaks more bulk and a more familiar appearance. Looking at the final map suggests that Mt. Rainier could have used additional manual touchups to broaden its distinctive summit.
Shasta near the southern end of the Cascade Range in California did not require touchups.
Working with bit data and applying a small amount of Gaussian Noise to the smoothed bathymetry prevented banding in the softly-modulated blue tones. The final step was to convert the bit bathymetry to an 8-bit image and combine it with the final map in Photoshop.
Because the Physical Map of the Coterminous United States portrays terrain in 3D compared to the 2D shaded relief on the USGS map, repositioning labels and elevation points in mountainous regions was necessary.
Rotate Text, a freeware filter from Graffixproved a huge time saver for converting the labels to a horizontal alignment. Plan oblique relief The Physical Map of the Coterminous United States uses plan oblique relief, a new technique for rendering terrain from digital elevation models DEMs. The assumption is that plan oblique relief on small-scale maps is easier for general audiences to read than conventional shaded relief.
Plan oblique relief contains the characteristics of both conventional shaded relief and 3D perspective views. As the "plan" in its name suggests, plan oblique relief uses a planimetric base just as most shaded relief maps do.
On shaded relief maps, terrain rendering occurs from a theoretical vantage point directly overhead. Plan oblique relief uses a lower vantage point, somewhere between the zenith 90 degrees and the southern horizon 0 degrees on north-oriented maps.
This results in 3D terrain that projects upwards perpendicular from the bottom of the map and parallel to the reader's view. The effect is not unlike axonometric city maps, but with three-dimensionality applied not to buildings but to the terrain. Southeast Oahu, Hawaii, depicted with conventional shaded relief leftplan oblique relief middleand as a 3D perspective view right.
For a pop-up enlargement of the illustration click here. Using only a pen, aerial photography and topographic map references and his considerable knowledge of physical geography, Raisz depicted landforms with 50 classes of pictorial symbology.
With only a few expertly placed strokes of the pen Raisz captured the look of complex physical features. His maps are in essence caricatures, but with the landscape as the subject matter and accuracy a key consideration.
The Physical Map of the Coterminous United States attempts to portray landforms in a manner similar to that of Raisz, although with continuous tones instead of inked lines. Note that the state boundary on the plan oblique relief follows the profile of the terrain. On Raisz's map the terrain does not influence the boundary position.
Visit Gallery II for additional comparisons with Raisz maps. Natural Scene Designer Pro 5.The purpose of this chapter is to understand the relative importance of the different relationship platforms (physical and virtual) in the consumer experience of luxury brands and how has it changed.
Results are able on the one hand to expand the theory of luxury branding and on the other hand to highlight some key implications for luxury brand.
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Discuss the relative importance of physical and human factors in accounting for changes to vegetation over time within ecosystems in the British Isles Essay.
4 a: the technique or process of representing on a plane or curved surface the spatial relation of objects as they might appear to the eye specifically: representation in a drawing or painting of parallel lines as converging in order to give the illusion of depth and distance.
b: a picture in perspective.