Upper Class 4 people found this useful What is a Sumerian? Sumerians are the ancient people from the Mesopotamian area present-day Iraq who invented written language, the wheel, and many other things that helped form civilizations. Believe it or not, the Sumerians claimed that humanity is the result of a genetic experiment.
Most accept the view that "a civilization is a culture which has attained a degree of complexity usually characterized by urban life.
Other characteristics usually present in a civilization include a system of writing to keep records, monumental architecture in place of simple buildings, and an art that is no longer merely decorative, like that on Neolithic pottery, but representative of people and their activities.
All these characteristics of civilization first appeared in Mesopotamia.
Although this broad plain received insufficient rainfall to support agriculture, the eastern section was watered by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Known in ancient days as Mesopotamia Greek for "between the rivers"the lower reaches of this plain, beginning near the point where the two rivers nearly converge, was called Babylonia.
Babylonia in turn encompassed two geographical areas - Akkad in the north and Sumer, the delta of this river system, in the south. This far more complex culture, based on large urban centers rather than simple villages, is what we associate with civilization.
Neolithic artisans discovered how to extract copper from oxide ores by heating them with charcoal. Then about B. The resulting alloy, bronze, was harder than copper and provided a sharper cutting edge.
Thus the advent of civilization in Sumer is associated with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the West, which in time spread to Egypt, Europe, and Asia. The Bronze age lasted until about B. The first plow was probably a stick pulled through the soil with a rope.
In time, however, domesticated cattle were harnessed to drag the plow in place of the farmer. Yoked, harnessed animals pulled plows in the Mesopotamian alluvium by B. As a result, farming advanced from the cultivation of small plots to the tilling of extensive fields.
The ox was the first step to the steam engine and gasoline motor. Pelican Books,p. Water transport down the Tigris and Euphrates solved the problem. The oldest sailing boat known is represented by a model found in a Sumerian grave of about B.
Soon after this date wheeled vehicles appear in the form of ass-drawn war chariots. For the transport of goods overland, however, people continued to rely on the pack ass. Another important invention was the potter's wheel, first used in Sumer soon after B.
Earlier, people had fashioned pots by molding or coiling clay by hand, but now a symmetrical product could be produced in a much shorter time.
A pivoted clay disk heavy enough to revolve of its own momentum, the potter's wheel has been called "the first really mechanical device.
The plain was bordered to the north and east by mountain ranges, in whose foothills, as we have seen, agriculture was first practiced. To the southwest lay the forbidding deserts of Syria and Arabia. Each year the two great rivers were swollen with the winter snows of the northern mountains, and each year at flood stage they spread a thick layer of immensely fertile silt across the flood plain where they approached the Persian Gulf.
This delta, a land of swamp rich in fish, wildlife, and date palms, was the most challenging and rewarding of the three natural units into which the river valleys were divided; and it was here, between and B. The delta could only be made habitable by large-scale irrigation and flood control, which was managed first by a priestly class and then by godlike kings.
Except for the period B. Immediately to the north of Sumerwhere the two rivers came most closely together, the plain was less subject to flooding but made fertile by rainfall and irrigation.
This area, known first as Akkadwas inhabited by Semitic peoples who subdued the Sumerians in the middle of the third millennium; but when a new Semitic people called the Amorites conquered the area about B.
Except for invasions of Hittites and Kassites, who were Indo-European peoples from AsiaBabylonia continued to dominate Mesopotamia for a thousand years. The third natural region, called Assyriastretched from the north of Babylonia to the Taurus range.
Its rolling hills were watered by a large number of streams flowing from the surrounding mountains as well as by the headwaters of the two great rivers themselves. The Assyrians, a viciously warlike Semitic people, were able to conquer the whole of Mesopotamia in the eighth and seventh centuries B.
Thus the history of Mesopotamia can be envisaged as a shift of the center of power northwards, from Sumer to Babylonia and then to Assyria. Several centuries later, as the Ubaidian settlers prospered, Semites from Syrian and Arabian deserts began to infiltrate, both as peaceful immigrants and as raiders in quest of booty.
After about BC, another people migrated from its homeland, located probably northeast of Mesopotamia, and began to intermarry with the native population. The newcomers, who became known as Sumerians, spoke an agglutinative language unrelated apparently to any other known language.
In the centuries that followed the immigration of the Sumerians, the country grew rich and powerful.
Art and architecture, crafts, and religious and ethical thought flourished.Ancient Sumerians. Ancient Sumerians – The Cradle of Civilization The Anicent Sumerians are thought to be one of the first urban societies. In B.C., human beings in many parts of the world still hunted their prey, tended sheep, and lived in caves or huts.
The sumerians introduced (7 things) leslutinsduphoenix.comntal architecture leslutinsduphoenix.coml schools leslutinsduphoenix.comn legal documents 4. sexagismal numerical system 5.
the city state 6. .
science math history literature technology health law business All Sections. What were Sumerian Jobs? people who had an education in reading and writing, scribes, had the job of writing in. Ancient Mesopotamian Jobs and Occupations Often regarded as the cradle of civilization Mesopotamia, located between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates, was indeed the .
Sumerian literature is the literature written in the Sumerian language during the Middle Bronze Age. Most Sumerian literature is preserved indirectly, via Assyrian or Babylonian copies. The Sumerians invented one of the first writing systems, developing Sumerian cuneiform writing out of earlier proto-writing systems by about the 30th century BC.
History >> Ancient Mesopotamia The Sumerians are thought to have formed the first human civilization in world history. They lived in southern Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East. one of the world's oldest surviving works of literature.
They invented the first form of writing, a number system, the.