June - Present. Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to: Anatomy and Physiology covers a variety of subjects that relate to the human body, with an emphasis on information needed by aspiring health professionals. The course discusses the physiology of the human body, including surveys of the major organ systems of the body as well as the underlying biochemistry and cellular concepts that are the building blocks for human life.
Nudge theory Richard Thalerwinner of the Nobel Prize in economics Nudge is a concept in behavioral sciencepolitical theory and economics which proposes positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions as ways to influence the behavior and decision making of groups or individuals.
Nudging contrasts with other ways to achieve compliance, such as educationlegislation or enforcement. The concept has influenced British and American politicians. The first formulation of the term and associated principles was developed in cybernetics by James Wilk before and described by Brunel University academic D.
Stewart as "the art of the nudge" sometimes referred to as micronudges . It also drew on methodological influences from clinical psychotherapy tracing back to Gregory Batesonincluding contributions from Milton EricksonWatzlawickWeakland and Fisch, and Bill O'Hanlon.
It also gained a following among US and UK politicians, in the private sector and in public health. A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters Organizational behavior terminology and concepts research papers behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives.
To count as a mere nudge, the intervention must be easy and cheap to avoid. Nudges are not mandates. Putting fruit at eye level counts as a nudge. Banning junk food does not. In this form, drawing on behavioral economics, the nudge is more generally applied to influence behaviour.
One of the most frequently cited examples of a nudge is the etching of the image of a housefly into the men's room urinals at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, which is intended to "improve the aim".
In other words, a nudge alters the environment so that when heuristic, or System 1, decision-making is used, the resulting choice will be the most positive or desired outcome.
Regarding its application to HSE, one of the primary goals of nudge is to achieve a "zero accident culture". These companies are using nudges in various forms to increase the productivity and happiness of employees.
Recently, further companies are gaining interest in using what is called "nudge management" to improve the productivity of their white-collar workers. Tammy Boyce, from public health foundation The King's Fundhas said: Ethicists have debated this rigorously.
Similarly, legal scholars have discussed the role of nudges and the law. Behavioral finance[ edit ] Robert J. Shillerwinner of the Nobel Prize in economics The central issue in behavioral finance is explaining why market participants make irrational systematic errors contrary to assumption of rational market participants.
The study of behavioral finance also investigates how other participants take advantage arbitrage of such errors and market inefficiencies.
Behavioral finance highlights inefficiencies, such as under- or over-reactions to information, as causes of market trends and, in extreme cases, of bubbles and crashes. Such reactions have been attributed to limited investor attention, overconfidence, overoptimism, mimicry herding instinct and noise trading.
Technical analysts consider behavioral finance to be behavioral economics' "academic cousin" and the theoretical basis for technical analysis.
Loss aversion appears to manifest itself in investor behavior as a reluctance to sell shares or other equity if doing so would result in a nominal loss. Benartzi and Thaler, applying a version of prospect theoryclaim to have solved the equity premium puzzlesomething conventional finance models so far have been unable to do.
Quantitative behavioral finance[ edit ] Quantitative behavioral finance uses mathematical and statistical methodology to understand behavioral biases. In marketing research, a study shows little evidence that escalating biases impact marketing decisions. Thaler's model of price reactions to information, with three phases underreaction, adjustment, and overreactioncreating a price trend.
One characteristic of overreaction is that average returns following announcements of good news is lower than following bad news. In other words, overreaction occurs if the market reacts too strongly or for too long to news, thus requiring an adjustment in the opposite direction.
As a result, outperforming assets in one period is likely to underperform in the following period. This also applies to customers' irrational purchasing habits.
They contend that behavioral finance is more a collection of anomalies than a true branch of finance and that these anomalies are either quickly priced out of the market or explained by appealing to market microstructure arguments. However, individual cognitive biases are distinct from social biases; the former can be averaged out by the market, while the other can create positive feedback loops that drive the market further and further from a " fair price " equilibrium.
Similarly, for an anomaly to violate market efficiency, an investor must be able to trade against it and earn abnormal profits; this is not the case for many anomalies. It is argued that the cause is entry barriers both practical and psychological and that returns between stocks and bonds should equalize as electronic resources open up the stock market to more traders.
Experiments include testing deviations from typical simplifications of economic theory such as the independence axiom  and neglect of altruism fairness and framing effects. Early attempts along these lines focus on the behavior of rats and pigeons.
These studies draw on the tenets of comparative psychologywhere the main goal is to discover analogs to human behavior in experimentally -tractable non-human animals.
They are also methodologically similar to the work of Ferster and Skinner. Recent studies have adopted a slightly different approach, taking a more evolutionary perspective, comparing economic behavior of humans to a species of non-human primatethe capuchin monkey.- Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts April 2, Organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, and teams.
Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. The Purdue Online Writing Lab Welcome to the Purdue OWL.
We offer free resources including Writing and Teaching Writing, Research, Grammar and Mechanics, Style Guides, ESL (English as a Second Language), and Job Search and Professional Writing.
Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts Organizational behavior is imperative for operational use in every organization. The focus of organizational behavior is on the conducts of the performance of people and groups within the organization.
Dr. Berger’s article outlines the subject of employee/organizational communication, describing its importance and basic internal communication processes.
Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts Organizational behavior In today’s challenges at work and an organization has become more than just a place where eight hours of a day is spent, but a place where behavior is a major contribution to the success behavior and what it means and the effects on the climate of an organization.
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