AbstractThis experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of language on reconstructive memory. The study consists of a laboratory experiment; it is an example of an independentmeasures design. The participants age ranged from and were all tested together tested once in a classroom during their lunch break. The participants were randomly given questionnaires after watching a video clip of a car crash.
The experiment involved two separate studies. In the first test, 45 participants were randomly assigned to watch different videos of a car accident, in which separate videos had shown collisions at 20 miles per hour, 30 miles per hour, and 40 miles per hour.
Afterwards, participants filled out a survey. The survey asked the question, "About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? Rather than "smashed", other verbs used included "bumped", "collided", "hit", or "contacted".
Participants estimated collisions of all speeds to average between 35 miles per hour to just below 40 miles per hour. If actual speed were the main factor in estimate, it could be assumed that participants would have lower estimates for lower speed collisions. Instead, the word being used to describe the collision seemed to better predict the estimate in speed rather than the speed itself.
Those in the first condition were asked the same question as the first study using the verb "smashed". The second group was asked the same question as the first study, replacing "smashed" with "hit". The final group was not asked about the speed of the crashed cars. The researchers then asked the participants if they had seen any broken glass, knowing that there was no broken glass in the video.
The responses to this question had shown that the difference between whether broken glass was recalled or not heavily depended on the verb used.
A larger sum of participants in the "smashed" group declared that there was broken glass. In this study, the first point brought up in discussion is that the words used to phrase a question can heavily influence the response given.
This indication supports false memory as an existing phenomenon. Article adjustment on eyewitness report[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Even the smallest adjustment in a question, such as the article preceding the supposed memory, could alter the responses. This presupposition increased the number of people responding that they had indeed seen the stop sign. Adjective implications on eyewitness report[ edit ] Select adjectives can imply characteristics about an object.Loftus, E.
F., & Palmer, J. C. (). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and leslutinsduphoenix.coml of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 13(5), This is the classic cognitive psychology study which you will look at for your H AS OCR Psychology exam.
Loftus & Palmer () Loftus & Palmer aimed to investigate the effect of a leading question about a car accident on recall of speed and damage caused Experiment 1: 45 students were shown clips of traffic accidents and asked a series of questions including the leading question and asked to recall speed.
Canter - John Duffy Case Study 'The Railway Rapist' Background This is the fourth study we will be looking at from Making a Profile, as part of your OCR A2 Forensic Psychology course.
It is further categorised into both 'case study.' The background for this study is Canter's circle theory and the bottom up approach to. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. For more than 30 years, I have been studying a phenomenon called the misinformation effect (Loftus and Palmer ; Loftus ; Loftus and Hoffman ).The studies that we have done show how readily memory can become skewed when people are fed misinformation.
Before this study was conducted, many cognitive psychologists Loftus and Palmer () leslutinsduphoenix.com The Second Experiment In the first experiment, there is a degree of uncertainty over evidence such as Loftus’, the Devlin Report () recommended.