Titchener[ edit ] Edward B. Titcheneralong with Wilhelm Wundtis credited for the theory of structuralism. It is considered to be the first "school" of psychology  .
This was the first laboratory dedicated to psychology, and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern psychology. Indeed, Wundt is often regarded as the father of psychology.
Wundt was important because he separated psychology from philosophy by analyzing the workings of the mind in a more structured way, with the emphasis being on objective measurement and control.
This laboratory became a focus for those with a serious interest in psychology, first for German philosophers and psychology students, then for American and British students as well.
All subsequent psychological laboratories were closely modeled in their early years on the Wundt model.
Wundt's background was in physiology, and this was reflected in the topics with which the Institute was concerned, such as the study of reaction times and sensory processes and attention. For example, participants would be exposed to a standard stimulus e.
Wundt's aim was to record thoughts and sensations, and to analyze them into their constituent elements, in much the same way as a chemist analyses chemical compounds, in order to get at the underlying structure.
The school of psychology founded by Wundt is known as voluntarism, the process of organizing the mind. During his academic career Wundt trained graduate students in psychology. This is significant as it helped disseminate his work.
Indeed, parts of Wundt's theory were developed and promoted by his one-time student, Edward Titchener, who described his system as Structuralism, or the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
Wundt wanted to study the structure of the human mind using introspection. Wundt believed in reductionism. That is, he believed consciousness could be broken down or reduced to its basic elements without sacrificing any of the properties of the whole.
Wundt argued that conscious mental states could be scientifically studied using introspection. He trained psychology students to make observations that were biased by personal interpretation or previous experience, and used the results to develop a theory of conscious thought.
Highly trained assistants would be given a stimulus such as a ticking metronome and would reflect on the experience. They would report what the stimulus made them think and feel. The same stimulus, physical surroundings and instructions were given to each person.
Wundt's method of introspection did not remain a fundamental tool of psychological experimentation past the early 's. His greatest contribution was to show that psychology could be a valid experimental science.
Therefore, one way Wundt contributed to the development of psychology was to do his research in carefully controlled conditions, i.
This encouraged other researchers such as the behaviorists to follow the same experimental approach and be more scientific. However, today psychologists e.
Skinner argue that introspection was not really scientific even if the methods used to introspect were. Skinner claims the results of introspection are subjective and cannot be verified because only observable behavior can be objectively measured.
Wundt concentrated on three areas of mental functioning; thoughts, images and feelings. These are the basic areas studied today in cognitive psychology. This means that the study of perceptual processes can be traced back to Wundt.
On the basis of his work, and the influence it had on psychologists who were to follow him, Wundt can be regarded as the founder of experimental psychology, so securing his place in the history of psychology.
At the same time, Wundt himself believed that the experimental approach was limited in scope, and that other methods would be necessary if all aspects of human psychology were to be investigated.
How to reference this article:Unit 1 General Psychology - Mr. Schmanke Early approach or "school" of psychology is associated with Wilhelm Wundt's student Edward Titchener? Theory.
in many demographic variables but not receiving the active medication or factor under study and thereby serving as a comparison group when treatment results are evaluated. Wundt and structuralism.
Wilhelm Wundt instructed Titchener, the founder of structuralism, at the University of Leipzig. The 'science of immediate experience' was stated by him.
This simply means that the complex perceptions can be raised through basic sensory information. Five Schools of Psychology Through Comparison and Wilhelm Wundt Five Schools of Psychology through Comparison and Wilhelm Wundt Krystal Ransome PSY Physiological Psychology Dr - Five Schools of Psychology Through Comparison and Wilhelm Wundt introduction.
Wundt, however, never claimed that psychology could be advanced through experiment and measurement alone, but had already stressed in that the development history of the mind and comparative psychology should provide some assistance.
Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn.
As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.
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